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Wildlife Relationship

WOODY PLANT TO WILDLIFE RELATIONSHIP by Ron Corbett

 

 

LARGE & MEDIUM TREES

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Nuts, Berries, and Seeds

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera and Bees Attracted to Nectar and Pollinate

Acer negundo

Boxelder

chipmunks, squirrels, voles, mice, turkey, grouse, quail, grosbeak, finch, nuthatch, sparrow

cecropia, imperial, polyphemus, giant leopard moth

unknown

Acer rubrum

Red Maple

chipmunks, squirrels, voles, mice, turkey, grouse, quail, grosbeak, finch, nuthatch, sparrow

cecropia, imperial, polyphemus, rosy maple, giant leopard moth

bees

Acer saccharum

Sugar Maple

chipmunks, squirrels, voles, mice, turkey, grouse, quail, grosbeak, finch, nuthatch, sparrow

promethia, imperial, polyphemus, rosy maple, giant leopard moth

unknown

Aesculus flava

Yellow Buckeye

squirrels

saddled prominent moth

hummingbird

Aesculus glabra

Ohio Buckeye

squirrels

saddled prominent moth

hummingbird

Betula nigra

River Birch

goldfinch, nuthatch

tiger swallowtail, red spotted purple, mourning cloak, luna, cecropia, imperial, polyphemus, io, blinded sphinx

unknown

Carya cordiformis

Bitternut Hickory

bear, deer, fox, squirrels, chipmunk, ducks, turkey, songbirds

hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, luna, imperial, regal, polyphemus

unknown

Carya glabra

Pignut Hickory

bear, deer, fox, squirrel, chipmunk, ducks, turkey, songbirds

hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, luna, imperial, regal, polyphemus

unknown

Carya laciniosa

Shellbark Hickory

human, bear, deer, fox, squirrels, chipmunk, ducks, turkey, songbirds

hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, luna, imperial, regal, polyphemus

unknown

Carya ovata

Shagbark Hickory

human, bear, deer, fox, squirrels, chipmunk, ducks, turkey, songbirds

hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, luna, imperial, regal, polyphemus

unknown

Celtis occidentalis

Hackberry

human, turkey, quail, grouse, waxwing, robin

american snout, hackberry emperor, tawny emperor, comma, question mark, mourning cloak, io moth

unknown

Diopyros virginiana

American Persimmon

human, deer, fox, coyote, opposum, racoon, skunk, squirrels, quail

luna, cecropia

unknown

Fagus grandifolia

American Beech

human, bear, deer, fox, small mammals, turkey, grouse, ducks, woodpeckers, nuthatch, blue jay, crow

early hairstreak, harvester

unknown

Gymnocladus dioicus

Kentucky Coffeetree

ground hog

honey locust moth

hummingbird, bees

Juglans nigra

Black Walnut

human, fox, squirrels, woodpeckers

banded hairstreak, luna, imperial, regal

unknown

Liquidamber styraciflua

Sweetgum

squirrels, chipmunk, grouse, quail, ducks, finches, sparrows, chickadee, towhee, wren

luna, imperial, cecropia, promethea

unknown

Liriodendron tulipifera

Tuliptree

rabbit, squirrels, quail, finches

tiger swallowtail, promethea, tuliptree beauty

hummingbird

Magnolia acuminata

Cucumbertree

towhee, ground feeding birds, mammals

promethia

unknown

Nyssa sylvatica

Black Tupelo

bear, fox, quail, woodpeckers, robin, mockingbird, thrasher

regal moth

unknown

LARGE & MEDIUM TREES

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Nuts, Berries, and Seeds

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera and Bees Attracted to Nectar and Pollinate

Platanus occidentalis

American Sycamore

beaver, muskrat, squirrels, finches, chickadee, junco

tussock moth

unknown

Populus deltoides

Eastern Cottonwood

songbirds

tiger swallowtail, viceroy, mourning cloak, red-spotted purple, luna, blinded sphinx

unknown

Prunus serotina

Black Cherry

bear, fox, racoon, opposum, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, grouse, quail, woodpeckers, robin, thrasher, mockingbird, bluebird, catbird, flycatcher, cardinal, waxwing, thrush, grosbeaks, sparrows, vireo, crow

tiger swallowtail, coral hairstreak, striped hairstreak, red spotted purple, white admiral, luna, cecropia, promethea, hummingbird moth, giant leopard moth, blinded sphinx

unknown

Quercus alba

White Oak

bear, deer, fox, racoon, opposum, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, quail, ducks, woodpeckers, blue jay, crow

red spotted purple, juvenal's duskywing, horace's duskywing, sleepy duskywing, hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, white-m hairstreak, stiped hairstreak, oak hairstreak, luna, imperial, polyphemus, waved sphinx, blinded sphinx

unknown

Quercus bicolor

Swamp White Oak

bear, deer, fox, racoon, opposum, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, quail, ducks, woodpeckers, blue jay, crow

red spotted purple, juvenal's duskywing, horace's duskywing, sleepy duskywing, hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, white-m hairstreak, stiped hairstreak, oak hairstreak, luna, imperial, polyphemus, waved sphinx, blinded sphinx

unknown

Quercus macrocarpa

Bur Oak

bear, deer, fox, racoon, opposum, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, quail, ducks, woodpeckers, blue jay, crow

red spotted purple, juvenal's duskywing, horace's duskywing, sleepy duskywing, hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, white-m hairstreak, stiped hairstreak, oak hairstreak, luna, imperial, polyphemus, waved sphinx, blinded sphinx

unknown

Quercus muehlenbergii

Chinquapin Oak

bear, deer, fox, racoon, opposum, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, quail, ducks, woodpeckers, blue jay, crow

red spotted purple, juvenal's duskywing, horace's duskywing, sleepy duskywing, hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, white-m hairstreak, stiped hairstreak, oak hairstreak, luna, imperial, polyphemus, waved sphinx, blinded sphinx

unknown

Quercus prinus

Chestnut Oak

bear, deer, fox, racoon, opposum, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, quail, ducks, woodpeckers, blue jay, crow

red spotted purple, juvenal's duskywing, horace's duskywing, sleepy duskywing, hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, white-m hairstreak, stiped hairstreak, oak hairstreak, luna, imperial, polyphemus, waved sphinx, blinded sphinx

unknown

Quercus rubra

Northern Red Oak

bear, deer, fox, racoon, opposum, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, quail, ducks, woodpeckers, blue jay, crow

red spotted purple, juvenal's duskywing, horace's duskywing, sleepy duskywing, hickory hairstreak, banded hairstreak, white-m hairstreak, stiped hairstreak, oak hairstreak, luna, imperial, polyphemus, waved sphinx, blinded sphinx

unknown

Salix nigra

Black Willow

songbirds

tiger swallowtail, red spotted purple, mourning cloak, viceroy, white admiral, luna, cecropia, giant leopard moth, blinded sphinx

unknown

Sassafras albidum

Sassafras

bear, beaver, rabbit, squirrels, turkey, quail, woodpeckers, kingbirds, flycatcher, mockingbird, warblers, phoebe

spicebush swallowtail, imperial, promethea

unknown

Tilia americana

American Basswood

small mammals, songbirds

tiger swallowtail, viceroy, red spotted purple, mourning cloak, acadian hairstreak, luna, imperial, blinded sphinx

bees

 

 

 

 

 

SMALL TREES & SHRUBS

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Nuts, Berries, and Seeds

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera and Bees Attracted to Nectar and Pollinate

Amelanchier arborea

Downy Serviceberry

human, bear, fox, squirrel, chipmunk, cedar waxwing, robin, grosbeak, mockingbird, catbird, baltimore oriole, thrush

stiped hairstreak, viceroy, blinded sphinx

unknown

Asimina triloba

Pawpaw

human, bear, fox, raccoon, opposum, squirrels, songbirds

zebra swallowtail, pawpaw sphinx

flies

Carpinus caroliniana

American Hornbeam

beaver, rabbit, squirrels, quail, grouse, warbler

tiger swallowtail, red spotted purple, striped hairstreak

unknown

Ceanothus americanus

New Jersey Tea

turkey, quail

spring azure, summer azure, mottled duskywing

unknown

Cephalanthus occidentalis

Buttonbush

waterfowl

tawny-edged skipper, titan sphinx

pipevine/black/zebra swallowtail, red admiral, american/painted ladies, comma, wood nymph, silver spotted skipper, hobomok skipper, spring azure, hummingbird moth, eight-spotted forester, bees

Cercis canadensis

Eastern Redbud

deer, quail, finch

henry's elfin, io moth

zebra swallowtail

Cornus florida

Flowering Dogwood

bear, deer, beaver, fox, skunk, squirrels, chipmunk, turkey, woodpeckers, robin, thrushes, cardinal, sparrows, titmouse, towhee, grosbeak, thrasher, bluebird, junco, crow

spring azure, cecropia

spring azure, banded hairstreak, snout

Cornus stolonifera

Red Osier Dogwood

bear, beaver, skunk, raccoon, rabbit, squirrels, chipmunk, turkey, grouse, quail, ducks, woodpeckers, bluebird, cardinal, catbird, finches, flycatcher, grosbeak, kingbird, mockingbird, oriole, robin, swallow, tanager, thrasher, thrush, vireo, warbler, waxwing

spring azure, cecropia

spring azure, banded hairstreak, snout

Corylus americana

American Hazelnut

human, foxes, deer, squirrels, chipmunks, woodpecker, turkey, grouse, bobwhite, blue jay

luna

unknown

Euonymus atropurpureus

Eastern Wahoo

flicker, brown thrasher, catbird, bluebird, cardinal, towhee

moths

bees (especially bumblebees), beetles

Hypericum prolificum

Shrubby St. John's Wort

songbirds

gray hairstreak

unknown

Lindera benzoin

Spicebush

deer, raccoon, opposum, rabbit, wood thrush

spicebush swallowtail, promethea

unknown

Ostrya virginiana

Eastern Hophornbeam

deer, rabbit, grouse, bobwhite, turkey

mourning cloak

unknown

Physocarpus opulifolius

Ninebark

grouse, songbirds

spring azure

bees

Ptelea trifoliata

Hoptree

 

giant/tiger swallowtails

comma

Rhus glabra

Smooth Sumac

turkey, mourning dove

luna, imperial, regal

unknown

Sambucus nigra

Elderberry

human, bear, grouse, quail, turkey, bunting, finch, flicker, flycatcher, grosbeak, mockingbird, nuthatch, oriole, sparrows, towhee, waxwing

cecropia

unknown

Staphylea trifolia

American Bladdernut

 

bees

Viburnum dentatum

Arrowwood

turkey, grouse, woodpeckers, bluebird, flicker, catbird, robin, thrasher, flycatcher, waxwing, thrush

spring azure, henry's elfin, hummingbird moth

red spotted purple, comma, question mark

Viburnum prunifolium

Blackhaw

chipmunk, squirrel, cardinal, bluebird, waxwing, robin,

baltimore checkerspot, spring/summer azures, hummingbird moth

red spotted purple, skipper, hummingbird moth, bees

 

 

 

 

 

EVERGREEN TREES

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Nuts, Berries, and Seeds

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera and Bees Attracted to Nectar and Pollinate

Juniperus virginiana

Eastern Red Cedar

mammals, waxwing, other songbirds

juniper hairstreak

unknown

Pinus strobus

White Pine

deer, squirrels, songbirds

imperial

unknown

Pinus virginiana

Virginia Pine

mammals, bobwhite, songbirds

imperial

unknown

Tsuga canadensis

Canadian Hemlock

mammals, songbirds

columbia silkmoth

unknown

 

 

 

 

 

VINES

 

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Nuts, Berries, and Seeds

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera and Bees Attracted to Nectar and Pollinate

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia Creeper

woodpeckers, chickadee, nuthatch, mockingbird, catbird, finches, flycatcher, tanager, swallow, vireo, warbler, thrush

virginia creeper sphinx, pandorus sphinx, nessus sphinx

bees

PRAIRIE WILDFLOWERS

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Seeds/Berries/Nu tlets

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera, Insects, and Hummingbirds Attracted to Nectar/Pollen

Asclepias incarnata

Swamp Milkweed

 

monarch

monarch, tiger/giant/spicebush/pipevine swallowtails, great spangled/variegated fritillaries, buckeye, banded/gray hairstreaks, bronze copper, pearl cresent, peck's skipper, hummingbird moth, bees

Asclepias syriaca

Common Milkweed

 

monarch, variegated fritillary

monarch, tiger/spicebush/pipevine/zebra/black swallowtails, red spotted purple, american/painted ladies, red admiral, great spangled/variegated fritillaries, viceroy, banded/gray hairstreaks, question mark, mourning cloak, pearl cresent, silvery/baltimore checkerspots, silver spotted/cloudywing/zabulon/peck's skippers, spring azure, bees

Asclepias tuberosa

Butterfly Weed

 

monarch

monarch, zebra/black swallowtails, great spangled/variegated fritillaries, gray hairstreak, american copper, hummingbirds

Cynanchum laeve

Honey or Milkweed Vine

monarch

monarch, bees

Echinacea purpurea

Purple Coneflower

songbirds

silvery checkerspot

monarch, tiger/giant/zebra/black swallowtails, viceroy, american/painted ladies, red admiral, great spangled/variegated fritillaries, viceroy, pearl cresent, silvery checkerspot, wood nymph, silver-spotted/dun/tawny-edged skippers, sulfur, bees, wasps, flies, beetles

Eryngium yuccifolium

Rattlesnake Master

 

black swallowtail

monarch, skippers, bees, wasps, flies, beetles

Eutrochium maculatum

Spotted Joe Pye Weed

songbirds

 

monarch, tiger/giant swallowtails, viceroy, american/painted ladies, red admiral, variegated fritillary, milbert's tortoiseshell, pearl cresent, zabulon skipper, orange sulfur, bees, flies

Heliopsis helianthoides

Oxeye

gamebirds, songbirds

moths

painted lady, skippers, bees

Liatris spicata

Gayfeather/Blazing Star

goldfinch

painted lady, silvery checkerspot

monarch, painted lady, hummingbird moth, bees

Monarda fistulosa

Wild Bergamot

 

 

monarch, spicebush/zebra/pipevine swallowtails, viceroy, great spangled fritillary, question mark, wood nymph, silver spotted skipper, hummingbird moth, bees

Oenothera biennis

Evening Primrose

songbirds

 

moths

Penstemon digitalis

Foxglove Beardtongue

songbirds

buckeye

bees, hummingbirds

Physostegia virginiana

Obedient Plant

 

 

bees, hummingbirds

Ratibida pinnata

Gray-Headed Coneflower

goldfinch

silvery checkerspot

monarch, bees, wasps, beetles

Rudbeckia hirta

Black Eyed Susan

goldfinch

silvery checkerspot

monarch, great spangled fritillary, red admiral, silvery checkerspot, pearl cresent, snout, bees, wasps, flies, beetles

Silene regia

Royal Catchfly

 

 

black swallowtail, hummingbirds

Silphium perfoliatum

Cup Plant

goldfinch

 

silver spotted skipper, bees, wasps, flies

Solidago canadensis

Canada Goldenrod

goldfinch

 

monarch, giant swallowtail, viceroy, american lady, bees, wasps, flies, beetles

Verbena hastata

Blue vervain

cardinal, field/field sparrows, junco

skippers, bees, wasps, flies

Vernonia altissima

Ironweed

 

american lady

monarch, american/painted ladies, skippers, bees

 

 

 

 

 

SUN & SHADE WILDFLOWERS

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Seeds/Berries/Nu tlets

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera, Insects, and Hummingbirds Attracted to Nectar/Pollen

Lobelia siphilitica

Great Blue Lobelia

songbirds

 

bees, hummingbirds

Monarda didyma

Bee Balm

 

 

pipevine swallowtail, hummingbird moth, bees, hummingbirds

Monarda media

Purple Bergamot

 

 

pipevine swallowtail, hummingbird moth, bees, hummingbirds

Phlox paniculata

Summer Phlox

 

 

monarch, pipevine swallowtail, skippers, hummingbird moth, bees, hummingbirds

Rudbeckia triloba

Brown Eyed Susan

songbirds

 

silvery checkerspot, bees, wasps, flies, beetles

Senna hebecarpus

Wild Senna

bobwhite

cloudless sulfer

cloudless/orange sulfurs, bees, flies, beetles

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

New England Aster

turkey

pearl cresent

monarch, american/painted ladies, red admiral, viceroy, snout, skippers, sulfurs, bees, flies

Tradescantia ohiensis

Ohio Spiderwort

 

 

bees, flies

Viola pubescens

Downy Yellow Violet

variegated/silver-bordered/great spangled/meadow fritillaries, giant leopard moth, virgin tiger moth

variegated/silver-bordered/great spangled/meadow fritillaries, bees

viola striata

Striped White Violet

 

giant leopard moth, virgin tiger moth

great spangled/variegated fritillaries, bees

 

 

 

 

 

WOODLAND WILDFLOWERS

 

 

 

Family & Species

Common Name

Animals that Feed on Seeds/Berries/Nu tlets

Lepidoptera Larvae that Feed on Leaves

Lepidoptera, Insects, and Hummingbirds Attracted to Nectar/Pollen

Aquilegia canadensis

Wild Columbine

 

columbine duskywing

bees, hummingbirds

Asarum canadense

Wild Ginger

 

pipevine swallowtail

flies, beetles

Anemonella thalictroides

Rue Anemone

 

 

bees, flies

Arisaema triphyllum

Jack-in-the-Pulpit

turkey, thrush

 

gnats

Cardamine concatenata

Cut-Leaved Toothwort

mustard/West Virginia whites

mustard/West Virginia whites, bees, flies

Cardamine douglassii

Purple Cress

 

 

bees, flies

Claytonia virginica

Spring Beauty

 

 

bees, flies

Dodecatheon meadia

Shooting Star

 

 

bees

Erythronium albidum

White Trout Lily

ants

 

skippers, bees, flies

Erythronium americanum

Yellow Trout Lily

ants

 

bees

Geranium maculatum

Wild Geranium

chipmunk

moths

skippers, bees, flies

Hepatica nobilis

Round-Lobed Hepatica

chipmunk

 

bees, flies

Hydrophyllum macrophyllum

Large Leaf Waterleaf

 

bees, flies

Jeffersonia diphylia

Twinleaf

 

 

bees

Mertensia virginica

Virginia Bluebell

 

 

swallowtails, gray hairstreak, skippers, hummingbird moth, sphinx moth, bees, flies, hummingbird

Phlox divaricata

Blue Phlox

 

moths

skippers, hummingbird moth, sphinx moth, bees, flies

Podophyllum peltatum

May Apple

box turtle

variegated fritillary

variegated fritillary, bees

Polygonatum biflorum

Solomon's Seal

birds

 

bees, hummingbirds

Sanguinaria canadensis

Bloodroot

ants

 

bees, flies, beetles

Sedum ternatum

Wild Stonecrop

 

variegated/great spangled fritillaries

variegated fritillary, fiery skipper, bees, wasps, flies

Smilacina racemosa

Solomon's Plume

grouse, songbirds

 

bees, flies, beetles

Trillium grandiflorum

Large White Trillium

ants

moths

bees

Trillium sessile

Toad Trillium

ants

moths

flies, beetles

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